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Lesson 8 
Directions, hiring a rickshaw-ṛ/ḍ/ṭ/ṇ, tones, infinitive, present, future, counting in fractions

Dialogues in Gurmukhi with Transcription and Translation

Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਜਾਨ : ਰਿਕਸ਼ਾ। jā́n : rikšā. John : Rickshaw!
ਰਿਕਸ਼ੇਵਾਲਾ : ਜੀ। rikše wālā : jī. Rickshaw Man : Yes sir.
ਜਾਨ : ਹਾਲ ਬਾਜ਼ਾਰ ਜਾਣਾ ਏ। jā́n : hāl bazār jāṇā e. John :
I want to go to Hall Bazar.
ਰਿਕਸ਼ੇਵਾਲਾ : ਆਓ ਜੀ। rikše wālā : āo jī. Rickshaw Man : Come on.
ਜਾਨ : ਕਿੰਨੇ ਪੈਸੇ? jā́n : kinne pɛse? John : How much?
ਰਿਕਸ਼ੇਵਾਲਾ : ਦਸ ਰੁਪੈ ਜੀ। rikše wālā : das rupɛ jī. Rickshaw Man : Ten rupees, sir.
ਜਾਨ :
   ਇਹ ਤੇ ਬਹੁਤ ਏ।
   ਕੁਝ ਘੱਟ ਕਰੋ।
jā́n :
   é te bͻ́t e,
   kúj kàṭ karo.
John :
   That's too much.
   Reduce it a little.
ਰਿਕਸ਼ੇਵਾਲਾ : ਚਲੋ, ਅੱਠ ਰੁਪੈ ਦੇ ਦੇਣਾ। rikše wālā : čalo, aṭh rupɛ de deṇā. Rickshaw Man :
All right, you may give me eight rupees.
ਜਾਨ : ਨਹੀਂ, ਸੱਤ ਰੁਪੈ ਦਿਆਂਗਾ। jā́n : naī̃́, sat rupɛ diā̃gā. John : No, I will give seven rupees.
ਰਿਕਸ਼ੇਵਾਲਾ : ਅੱਛਾ, ਆਓ। rikše wālā : aččhā āo. Rickshaw Man : O.K., come on.


Dialogues in Gurmukhi with Transcription and Translation

Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਖਾਲਸਾ ਕਾਲਿਜ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਜਾਈਦਾ ਏ?
jā́n :
khālsā kalij kiwẽ jāīdā e?
John :
How do you get to Khalsa College?
ਹਰੀ ਸਿੰਘ :ਏਥੋਂ ਸਿੱਧੇ ਤੁਰੇ ਜਾਓ। harī sĩ́g : ethõ sidde ture jāo. Hari Singh : Go straight from here.
ਜਾਨ :ਅੱਛਾ। jā́n : aččhā. John : Thanks.
ਹਰੀ ਸਿੰਘ:
ਅੱਗੇ ਚੌਂਕ ਆਏਗਾ, ਓਥੋਂ ਸੱਜੇ ਹੱਥ ਮੁੜ ਜਾਣਾ।
harī sĩ́g :
agge čͻk āegā. othõ sajje hath muṛ jāṇā.
Hari Singh :
Just ahead you will come to a /čͻk/.
Turn left from there.
ਜਾਨ:ਠੀਕ, ਫਿਰ? jā́n : ṭhīk, phir? John : Fine. Then what?
ਹਰੀ ਸਿੰਘ:
ਫਿਰ ਅਗਲੀ ਸੜਕ ਤੋਂ ਖੱਬੇ ਹੋ ਜਾਣਾ।
harī sĩ́g :
phir aglī saṛk tõ khabbe ho jāṇā.
Hari Singh :
Then at the next street turn left.
ਜਾਨ:ਜੀ। jā́n : jī. John : Yes.
ਹਰੀ ਸਿੰਘ:
ਓਥੋਂ ਸਾਹਮਣੇ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਕਾਲਿਜ ਦਿਸ ਪਵੇਗਾ।
ਬਹੁਤ ਦੂਰ ਨਹੀਂ।
harī sĩ́g :
othõ sā́mṇe khālsā kālij dis pawegā.
bͻ́t dūr naī̃́.
Hari Singh :
From there you will see Khalsa College.in front of you.
It is not very far.
ਜਾਨ :ਅੱਛਾ ਜੀ, ਮਿਹਰਬਾਨੀ। jā́n : aččhā jī, mérbānī. John : Thank you very much.


Dialogues in Gurmukhi with Transcription and Translation

Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਮੰਡੀ ਨੂੰ ਕਿਹੜਾ ਰਾਹ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਏ?
jā́n : mãḍī nū̃ kéṛā rā́ jā̃dā e? John : What is the route to the market?
ਹਰਦਿਆਲ :
ਤੁਸੀਂ ਏਸ ਬਜ਼ਾਰ ਤੁਰੇ ਜਾਓ।
ਅੱਗੇ ਖੱਬੇ ਹੱਥ ਇਕ ਗਲੀ ਆਏਗੀ।
hardiāl :
tusī̃ es bazār ture jāo.
agge khabbe hath ik gali āegī.
Hardial :
Keep on going in this bazar.
A little ahead on your left is a /galī/.
ਜਾਨ :ਅੱਛਾ। jā́n : aččhā. John : Yes.
ਹਰਦਿਆਲ :
ਗਲੀ ਲੰਘ ਕੇ ਮੋੜ ਤੋਂ ਸੱਜੇ ਹੱਥ ਹੋ ਜਾਣਾ।
hardiāl : galī lã́g ke moṛ tõ sajje hath ho jāṇā. Hardial :
After crossing the /galī/, turn right at the corner.
ਜਾਨ:ਜੀ। jā́n : jī. John : Yes.
ਹਰਦਿਆਲ :
ਅੱਗੇ ਸਾਹਮਣੇ ਮੰਡੀ ਆ ਜਾਏਗੀ।
ਏਥੋਂ ਨੇੜੇ ਈ ਏ।
hardiāl :
agge sā́mṇe mãḍī ā jāegī.
ethõ neṛe ī e.
Hardial :
The market is straight ahead.
It is quite near here.
ਜਾਨ:ਅੱਛਾ ਜੀ, ਮਿਹਰਬਾਨੀ। jā́n : aččhā jī mérbānī. John : All right. Thank you.

8.4 There is a wide variety of public conveyances in Indian cities. The /rikšā/ originally was pulled by the /rikšā wālā/. That type has pretty well disappeared. In some cities it has been replaced by a machine built on a bicycle frame and propelled by pedalling. In others the /rikšā/ is now a rebulit motor-scootor, often referred to as a /phaṭphaṭī/. A /rikšā/ never carries more than two, and is more convenient for just one.
  The / tā̃gā/ is two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, slow, but more comfortable for two than a /rikšā/. A /ṭɛksī/ is, of course, an automobile. They are conventionally painted black with a yellow roof. In many cities they come in two sizes, large and small, with different rates. Taxis have meters. Therefore, it is not usually necessary to fix a price in advance. In all other types, a bargain must be agreed on before starting.
8.5   A /galī/ is a small thoroughfare in the built up portion of a city. It is typically quite narrow, often too narrow for cars. Sometimes it will be lined with small shops. Typically, however it is lined with residences. If there are shops, there are usually residences over them.
  By contrast a /saṛk/ is a major thoroughfare carrying traffic from one part of the city to another. A /čͻk/ is a place where several thoroughfare come together in a major intersection. The /čͻk/ is not the intersection alone, but the area around it.
  A /moṛ/ is any corner on any thoroughfare. Most of them, of course, are relatively unimportant and do not bear names. A /čͻk/ usually is named. A very usual of locating a place in a city is to say that it is in a certain /čͻk/.
  A /bazār/ is a concentration of shops, often pretty largely in the same or very similar trades. Thus there may be a /sabzī bazār/, a concentration of vegetable shops along a street or several intersecting streets. Very often a major business street is referred to as a /bazār/ rather than as a /saṛk/. A /mãḍī/ is a market building in which there are small stalls for tradesmen Thus there may be a /sabzī mãḍī/ containing stalls for vegetables sellers.
  Often a /bazār/ is named for some person, as Hall Bazar in Amritsar. Recently the name has been officially changed to Gandhi Bazar, but the old name presists in popular use.
8.6   Indian ways of giving directions are often confusing to Americans. For example, when they say /sídde ture jāo/ it means little more than 'Go the direction you are headed now'. It seldom should be taken to mean that you continue in more or less a straight line. To translate 'Go straight ahead' is certainly misleading. Indians are apt to overlook various minor side streets, so that if they say /moṛ tõ sajje hath ho jāṇā/ they mean something like 'Then left at the first corner that looks like it goes somewhere'. All this can be very puzzling to a foreigner. The best procedure is to go a little way and then ask again. And of course through it all, remember that the Amercian way of giving directions, which seems perfectly clear to you, might be just as confusing to a Punjabi as his to you.
8.7   /ṛ/ is a retroflex flap. That means that the tongue is moved back and then flapped forward, touching the roof of the mouth very briefly as it moves. It differs in its rapid movement from /ṭ ḍ ṇ/, which are held a short time. It is merely conventional to write it by a modified form of the letter /ṛ/. It has no close relationship to /r /. To most Americans it does not suggest 'r.' The closest approximation in some kinds of American English is the very rapid 't or 'd' between vowels in words like 'water' or 'rudder'. Some British dialects use something like /ṛ/ for 'r'; this is what is indicated by spelling 'veddy' to represent 'very' with a British accent. In any case, the best way to get it will be imitation.
  The following words will be useful for practice and will in addition demostrate how sharply different /ṛ/ is from /ḍ/ and /r/, If your /ḍ/ and /ṛ/ are not clearly different, it may be because you are flapping your /ḍ/. In that case, be careful to actually hold it very briefly instead of merely touching the roof of the mouth in passing.
Gurmukhi Transcription Gurmukhi Transcription Gurmukhi Transcription
ਸਾਡਾ sāḍā ਸਾੜਾ sāṛā ਸਾਰਾ sārā
ਕਾਢਾ kā́ḍā ਕਾੜ੍ਹਾ kā́ṛā ਕਾਹਰਾ kā́rā
ਰੋਡੀ roḍī ਤੋੜੀ toṛī ਤੋਰੀ torī
ਵਾਢੀ wā́ḍī ਵਾੜੀ wāṛī ਵਾਰੀ wārī
ਛੱਡ čhaḍ ਛੜ čhaṛ ਛੋਹਰ čhór
ਭੇਡ pèḍ ਭੇੜ pèṛ ਪਰ par
ਕੱਢ káḍ ਕੜ੍ਹ káṛ ਕਰ kar
ਝੰਡੀ čã̀ḍī ਝਾੜੀ čā̀ṛī ਚਾਰੀ čārī
ਪੀਢੀ pī́ḍī ਪੀੜ੍ਹੀ pī́ṛī ਪੀਰੀ pīrī
ਢਾਡੀ ṭā̀ḍī ਤਾੜੀ tāṛī ਤਾਰੀ tārī


The following sentences are for practicing tones in context:  
Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਓਹ ਘੋੜਾ ਏ। ó kòṛā e. That is a horse.
ਓਹ ਕੋੜਾ ਏ। ó koṛā e. That is a whip.
ਓਹ ਕੋੜ੍ਹਾ ਏ। ó kóṛā e. That is a leper.
ਓਹ ਘੋੜਾ ਚੰਗਾ ਏ। ó kòṛā čãgā e. That horse is good.
ਓਹ ਕੋੜਾ ਚੰਗਾ ਏ। ó koṛā čãgā e. That whip is good.
ਓਹ ਕੋੜ੍ਹਾ ਚੰਗਾ ਏ। ó kóṛā čãgā e. That leper is good.
ਓਹ ਘੋੜਾ ਬਹੁਤ ਚੰਗਾ ਏ। ó kòṛā bͻ́t čãgā e. That horse is very good.
ਓਹ ਕੋੜਾ ਬਹੁਤ ਚੰਗਾ ਏ। ó koṛā bͻ́t čãgā e. That whip is very good.
ਓਹ ਕੋੜ੍ਹਾ ਬਹੁਤ ਚੰਗਾ ਏ। ó kóṛā bͻ́t čãgā e. That leper is very good.
ਓਹ ਚੰਗਾ ਘੋੜਾ ਏ। ó čãgā kòṛā e. That is good horse.
ਓਹ ਚੰਗਾ ਕੋੜਾ ਏ। ó čãgā koṛā e. That is good whip.
ਓਹ ਚੰਗਾ ਕੋੜ੍ਹਾ ਏ। ó čãgā kóṛā e. That is a good leper.
ਓਹ ਬਹੁਤ ਚੰਗਾ ਘੋੜਾ ਏ। ó bͻ́t čãgā kòrā e. That is a very good horse.
ਓਹ ਬਹੁਤ ਚੰਗਾ ਕੋੜਾ ਏ। ó bͻ́t čãgā koṛā e. That is a very good whip.
ਓਹ ਬਹੁਤ ਚੰਗਾ ਕੋੜ੍ਹਾ ਏ। ó bͻ́t čãgā kóṛā e. That is a very good leper.


Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਓਹ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਏ। ó šέr jā̃dā e. He is going to the city.
ਮੁੰਡਾ ਬਾਹਰ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਏ। mũḍā bā́r jā̃dā e. The boy is going outside.
ਮੋਤੀ ਸਕੂਲੇ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਏ। motī sakūle jā̃dā e. Moti is going to school.
ਹਲਵਾਈ ਬਜ਼ਾਰ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਏ। halwāī bazār jā̃dā e. The confectioner is going to the bazar.

Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਓਹ ਬਜ਼ਾਰ ਜਾਂਦੀ ਏ। ó bazār jā̃dī e. She is going to the bazār.
ਕੁੜੀ ਓਧਰ ਜਾਂਦੀ ਏ। kuṛī ódar jā̃dī e. The girl is going there.
ਸੀਤਾ ਕਾਲਿਜ ਜਾਂਦੀ ਏ। sīta kālij jā̃dī e. Sita is going to college.

Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਓਹ ਪਿੰਡ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਨੇ। ó pĩḍ jā̃de ne. They are going to the village.
ਮੁੰਡੇ ਅੰਦਰ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਨੇ। mũḍe ãdar jā̃de ne. The boys are going inside.
ਮੋਤੀ ਤੇ ਰਾਮ ਹਾਲ ਬਜ਼ਾਰ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਨੇ। moti te ram hal bazār jā̃de ne. Moti and Ram are going to Hall Bazar.

Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਓਹ ਘਰ ਜਾਂਦੀਆਂ ਨੇ। ó kàr jā̃dīā̃ ne. They are going home.
ਕੁੜੀਆਂ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਜਾਂਦੀਆਂ ਨੇ। kuṛīā̃ šέr jā̃dīā̃ ne. The girls are going to the city.
ਸੀਤਾ ਤੇ ਬਿਮਲਾ ਸਕੂਲੇ ਜਾਂਦੀਆਂ ਨੇ। sīta te bimlā sakūle jā̃dīā̃ ne. Sita and Bimla are going to school.

Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਸੱਜੇ ਹਥ ਮੁੜ ਜਾਣਾ। sajje hath muṛ jāṇā. Turn to the right.
ਸੱਜੇ ਹਥ ਮੁੜ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਏ। sajje hath muṛ jā̃dā e. He is turning to the right.
ਖੱਬੇ ਹਥ ਮੁੜ ਗਿਆ। khabbe hath muṛ giā. He turned to the left.
ਏਧਰ ਮੁੜ ਜਾਏਗਾ। édar muṛ jāegā. He will turn this way.

Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਖੱਬੇ ਹਥ ਮੁੜ ਜਾਣਾ। khabbe hath muṛ jāṇā. Turn to the left.
ਸੱਜੇ ਹਥ ਮੁੜ ਜਾਂਦੀ ਏ। sajje hath muṛ jā̃dī e. She is turning to the right.
ਸੱਜੇ ਹਥ ਮੁੜ ਗਈ। sajje hath muṛ gaī. She turned to the right.
ਓਧਰ ਮੁੜ ਜਾਏਗੀ। ódar muṛ jāegī. She will turn that way.


Many verb forms vary according to the number and gender of the subject. When the subject is /ó/ or /é/ only the form of the verb will ordinarily indicate whether the reference is singular or plural, masculine or feminine. English shows this by using four different pronouns, 'he', 'she', 'it', and 'they'.  


The verb in /sajje hath muṛ jāṇā/ and many similar sentences, however, does not change no matter whom the command is addressed to.  


The verb forms in 8.9 to 8.12 have several uses, two of which are quite distinct in English. They may express some current activity and are so translated in the pattern practices. They may also express some habitual activity, whether it is happening at the moment or not. This would be done in English by such sentences as : 'He goes to the city'. 'She goes to the bazar'.  


Certain fractions are expressed by use of the following words :
Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਸਵਾ sawā ‘one quarter more’
ਸਾਢੇ sā́ḍe ‘one half more’
ਪੌਣੇ pͻṇe ‘one quarter less’

For example :
Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਸਵਾ ਤਿੰਨ sawā tin ‘three and a quarter’
ਸਾਢੇ ਤਿੰਨ sā́ḍe tin ‘three and a half ’
ਪੌਣੇ ਚਾਰ pͻṇe čār ‘three and three-quarter’

There are two exceptions :
Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਡੇੜ੍ਹ ḍéṛ ‘one and a half ’
ਢਾਈ ṭā̀ī ‘two and a half ’

Fractions less than one are expressed as follows :
Gurmukhi Transcription Translation
ਅੱਧਾ áddā ‘one half ’
ਪੌਣਾ pͻṇā ‘three quarters’

Practice these numbers in suitable sentences from the dialogues and pattern practice.